Aromatherapy: Part 3 - Emotions

Following on from my last blog, where I discussed how essential oils influence the limbic system in the brain and the natural chemical constituents that determine the effect on the body, I will now delve into the topic of using essential oils to improve our emotional state. Essential oils are complex and unaltered from nature. Even if scientists try they can never truly be recreated in a laboratory. Their many components create a synergistic value that is in biochemical harmony with our bodies because we too are part of nature. Many aromatherapists, such as myself, like to use essential oils as a tool to help bring our minds and emotions back to a state of balance and harmony. We see aromatherapy as both an art and a science. Most of all, aromatherapy is very enjoyable - it is sensuous and restorative and works on the mind and emotions rapidly.

As the theme is emotions, I'm going to be less academic and more creative, intuitive and downright practical as I discuss how you can actually use aromatherapy to improve how you feel. I like to talk about what I know, what I really live, and I hope that you will find value in what I have to share. 

    Repressing Emotions

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    Before I give you some practical ways to improve your mood with aromatherapy I'll discuss emotional repression. Generally it is not a good idea to use aromatherapy or anything (such as alcohol, drugs, caffeine, sugar, over-exercise, food, prescription drugs, etcetera) as a tool to numb our feelings. People are imperfect and complex. If a person keeps manifesting the same negative patterns in life (e.g. bad relationships, loss of job, abuse, debt, addiction, and so on) or experiencing low mood, anxiety or anger on a regular basis, they need to address the deep cause of these issues. 

    Aromatherapy shouldn't be used to pretend everything is okay, while there is a part of you that really isn't okay, and screaming for attention and healing. If you try to ignore something, don't worry, it will get bigger! What you resist, persists! Specifically this is the case for the shadow self and any emotional pain or trauma because it doesn't really go away until it is accepted and healed. For an emotion to move, you need to feel it fully, face it, accept it and allow it to heal. Only then can it move through you. However for many people it won't be safe for them to do this on their own because their pain is overwhelming and they need some counselling so that they don't get "stuck" in the painful place, and can be guided to the next step. 

    Aromatherapy helps us to delve deeper into emotions and really process them. Aromatherapy especially helps us to recover quickly after processing emotions and get to a better feeling place. 


    Aromatherapy to Process and Transform Emotions

    Now I will explore how you can use essential oils to process different feelings and transform them. There is a lot I could explore about emotional aromatherapy and I hope to explore it further, but for now I want you to know that you can start using aromatherapy immediately and it is easy to incorporate it into your life. Therefore I'll give some practical tips for some different feelings, that we all experience in life. 

    Stress and Anxiety

    If you are feeling stressed or anxious, generally you have too much going on. You are worried about whether you will complete everything or you may be worried you don't have a solution to a particular problem. This activates your sympathetic nervous system to put your body into the stress response - "fight or flight (or freeze)" mode. Therefore one of the best things you can do is to take long, slow, deep breaths. This signals to your nervous system that your body is calming down and it can stop the stress response, or at least reduce it. Even better, along with those deep breaths, inhale an essential oil that has calming properties, such as true lavender essential oil, or my favourite "rescue remedy" clary sage. 

     Photo by  Naomi August  on  Unsplash

    Photo by Naomi August on Unsplash

    I've experienced different forms of anxiety in the past, and I found the best way to deal with it was to acknowledge my feelings, look within for the true cause, look after my body with healthy food and exercise, understand the feeling was temporary, and work on my personal growth. Self-care was one of the most important factors in managing anxiety and healing myself. Self-care didn't end when the anxiety stopped, it is an ongoing practice. My self-care includes minimising stressors (from food that doesn't agree with my body, to toxins in the environment, and toxic people!), having regular massages, taking regular aromatherapy baths, diffusing essential oils, getting enough sleep, going for walks in nature, practising yoga and meditation, and connecting with people who treat me well. On a practical level taking action always helps, for example stressed about an exam - start studying; or dissatisfied with your job - think about what you want in a new job and start looking. It's all common sense stuff, but taking action really helps. If I'm really stressed and unable to concentrate I start with exercise - exercise really helps to clear the mind. We all experience stressors, so it is important to practice self-care and understand that there are things we can do to help us cope better, so that we don't become so overwhelmed with worrying thoughts that we slip into a state of anxiety. When anxiety does happen, we need to love and accept ourselves anyway. It doesn't help to berate yourself when you are already feeling awful. 

    Meditation is helpful for stress and anxiety but it is often the last thing we feel capable of doing when we are in that state. What can help is to first write down all of the things you are worrying about. Then set it aside and start the meditation or practice some yoga first. I always find meditation is easier after practising yoga. It also helps to set the mood by diffusing some calming essential oils as they will help you to experience a deeply relaxed state and if you use the same blend of essential oils each time, it will help you reach that state quicker as scent is linked with memory.  Start with just 5 or 10 minutes of meditation a day, and gradually increase to around 20 minutes or whatever you prefer. As you breathe deeply and slowly, consciously choose to observe the thoughts going through your head rather than identify with them. The goal is not to stop thought, that is impossible, the goal is to stop identifying with the thoughts - allowing them to pass by. To assist this you can focus on your breath or repeat a mantra. Meditation will help you become a calmer person overall. 

    There are many essential oils that are helpful for stress. The essential oils below are all great for calming the nervous system. You can use them in different ways - inhale them, have an aromatherapy bath (check safety of each oil first), dilute in vegetable oil and rub on your chest or use around 10 drops of a blend in an essential oil diffuser. You can use one of the following essential oils or choose 3 or 4 that will go well together and blend them.

    Calming Essential Oils

     Photo by  Olesya Grichina  on  Unsplash
    • Bergamot     (both calming & uplifting for mood)
    • Atlas Cedarwood     (calming, good for meditation, grounding)
    • Roman Chamomile     (calming, eases anxiety, encourages patience, peace, helps insomnia)
    • Clary Sage     (encourages euphoria & wellbeing, calming)
    • Frankincense     (slows breathing, refreshing for mind, calming, comforting)
    • Geranium     (calming, uplifts spirits, balancing)
    • True Lavender     (very calming, helps insomnia, relieves exhaustion, balancing)
    • Sweet Marjoram     (calming, warming, comforting)
    • Melissa     (calming & uplifting, comforting)
    • Neroli     (euphoric, calming, soothing, brings peace)
    • Sweet Orange     (calming, reviving & encourages positive outlook)
    • Palmarosa     (calming & uplifting, clarifying)
    • Patchouli     (grounding, balancing)
    • Rose, Damask     (soothing, calming, comforting, lifts heart)
    • Sandalwood     (soothing, calming, brings peace)
    • Vetiver     (grounding, calming, settles nerves)
    • Ylang Ylang     (calming, excellent for anxiety, balancing)

    Calming Blend

     ylang ylang

    ylang ylang

    To relax the body, calm the emotions and bring a feeling of wellbeing. 

    • True Lavender - 2 drops
    • Geranium - 2 drops
    • Ylang Ylang - 3 drops
    • Bergamot - 3 drops 

    or 

    • Sandalwood - 4 drops
    • Atlas Cedarwood - 3 drops
    • Sweet Orange - 4 drops

    There are so many beautiful blends you can make from the above oils. Get creative!

    Low Mood and Depression

    When experiencing a low mood we don't have much energy and don't feel like doing much. However at that time it is more important than ever to practise self-care - diffuse some essential oils, have an aromatherapy bath, watch a funny movie (or a sad and heart-warming movie if you need to cry) and eat healthy foods. These are all supportive things you can do for yourself that don't really require much effort.

    Sometimes when feeling low you need to actually get physical to help move the feelings. Whether it is a gentle or vigorous exercise - whichever you feel capable of, it can help a lot. 

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    Following are some uplifting essential oils. Many of these essential oils are also excellent for mental fatigue.  Any of the calming essential oils will also be beneficial for low moods as they work to calm the nervous system - many people experience depressed and anxious moods at the same time, or go from one to the other. You can blend some of the calming oils with these uplifting oils to create a blend that is uplifting and balancing, or create a blend from 3 or 4 of the following oils that is mainly uplifting and stimulating. You need to think about which oils will go well together first, because some of these essential oils really don't mix well, but I've included some blends below that are lovely.

    Uplifting Essential Oils

    • Basil     (encourages concentration, uplifting)
    • Bergamot     (both calming & uplifting for mood)
    • Clary Sage     (encourages euphoria & wellbeing, calming)
    • Frankincense     (slows breathing, refreshing for mind, calming, comforting)
    • Geranium     (calming, uplifts spirits, balancing)
    • Ginger     (stimulating, warming & grounding)
    • Grapefruit     (reviving, balancing, euphoria)
    • Jasmine [Absolute]     (restoring, revitalising, warms emotions, great for severe depression)
    • Lemon     (refreshing, encourages clarity of thought)
    • Lemongrass     (stimulating, energising, uplifts the spirits)
    • Lime     (refreshing, uplifting & stimulating for mind)
    • Mandarin     (uplifting - great for kids)
    • May Chang     (uplifting, stimulating, encourages positive outlook)
    • Sweet Orange     (calming, reviving & encourages positive outlook)
    • Peppermint     (stimulates mind, uplifts mood, improves concentration)
    • Rosemary     (stimulates mind, improves concentration & memory)
    • Spearmint     (stimulates mind, milder than peppermint and therefore great for kids)
    • Thyme     (aids memory, concentration, clarity)
     Photo by  Ernest Porzi  on  Unsplash

    Photo by Ernest Porzi on Unsplash

    Uplifting Blend

    To help uplift the spirits, clear the mind, and encourage a positive outlook.

    • Lemon - 4 drops
    • Clary Sage - 4 drops
    • May Chang - 3 drops

    or 

    • Bergamot - 4 drops
    • Frankincense - 1 drop
    • Geranium - 2 drops
    • Lemongrass - 3 drops

    Balancing Blend

    This blend is uplifting for the spirits, and calming for the nervous system:

    • Sweet Orange - 4 drops
    • True Lavender - 3 drops
    • Frankincense - 2 drops
    • Bergamot - 2 drops

    Grief

    We all experience grief in life. We grieve for the loss of a loved one - whether it's a human or our furry friend. Let's not forget about miscarriages, which are much more common than many people think and rarely discussed. Then there are abortions - just because a woman felt she didn't have the resources to carry and care for a baby doesn't mean she doesn't grieve. When a relationship breaks down we experience a kind of grief too. We also grieve for other things we have lost - a physical capability for example. Grief isn't just intense sadness, it can be accompanied by many different emotions and feelings in the body, for example anger and guilt and feeling nauseous. There are things we can do for ourselves to help cope with grief, such as the self-care practices I discussed earlier and in particular being nurtured by having a massage. Massage helps ground us into our body and helps us to feel and release emotions, and leaves us feeling calm. Sometimes you may just need to cry, and you need to allow yourself the freedom to do that. It is a natural response to what has happened. Connection is an important part of healing - connecting with our loved ones can help. Counselling can help to. 

    Essential oils will not to stop you from experiencing grief - they are there to help support you and help you express the grief. Different essential oils will be better during different phases of the grief.

     Photo by  Ana Pavlyuk  on  Unsplash

    Photo by Ana Pavlyuk on Unsplash

    Roman chamomile is a great essential oil to use at night before bed - either in the bath, or you can dilute it in vegetable oil and rub on your chest. It is very comforting for the emotions and relaxing and will help you sleep better. Lavender is excellent to help with sleep too - just use 2 drops on your pillow. It works best when it isn't too overpowering - too strong a smell can actually stimulate you. 

    Blend any of the comforting essential oils in a vegetable oil, such as almond, apricot kernel or jojoba oil and massage on your chest, over your heart chakra. For a safe 2.5% dilution rate use 4 drops in 5ml of carrier oil. Note that some essential oil bottles have bigger drops - my advice is based on Essential Therapeutics - for their bottles: 32 drops equals 1mL. You can also use the essential oils in a diffuser or oil burner and in the bath. 

    Comforting and Calming essential oils for Grief

    • Roman Chamomile     (calming, eases anxiety, encourages patience, peace, helps insomnia)
    • Frankincense     (slows breathing, refreshing for mind, calming, comforting)
    • Jasmine [Absolute]     (restoring, revitalising, warms emotions, great for severe depression)
    • True Lavender     (very calming, helps insomnia, relieves exhaustion, balancing)
    • Sweet Marjoram     (calming, warming, comforting)
    • Melissa     (calming & uplifting, comforting)
    • Neroli     (euphoric, calming, soothing, brings peace)
    • Rose, Damask     (soothing, calming, comforting, lifts heart)
    • Sandalwood     (soothing, calming, brings peace)

    Comforting and Calming Blend

    To help you process deep emotions, brings warmth, comfort, nurturing and alleviates tension: 

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    • Roman Chamomile - 3 drops
    • Jasmine Absolute - 2 drops
    • Sweet Marjoram - 2 drops
    • Grapefruit - 2 drops

    Or 

    • Neroli - 2 drops
    • Rose - 1 drop
    • Sandalwood - 3 drops

    Comforting for Distress Blend

    For when you are distressed, and can't breathe deeply and fully. Inhale this blend while concentrating on slowing and deepening your breath. 

    • Frankincense - 2 drops
    • True Lavender - 2 drops

    Anger

    Anger, it is one of those emotions that makes people uncomfortable - to feel it or be around it. Cultural and society expectations are somewhat paradoxical - on the one hand, in the older generation (and still today) men have basically been taught that anger is one of the only emotions that is acceptable for them to express, and on the other hand generally anger is frowned upon by society. Anger is just as valid as any other emotion, however I see that it can easily be unbalanced or not expressed appropriately - for some people they repress their anger but inevitably it builds up causing an outburst or possible health problems (repressed emotions are not good for the body) and for others they are often angry or frustrated and used to being in this state and don't know how to get to a better state. Just the smallest thing can set them off. For these people, on a subconscious level at least, they are essentially looking for things to be angry about and so they find them everywhere. Perhaps because they haven't fully expressed what they are really angry about and the hurt that is behind that anger or perhaps they are addicted to anger - emotions literally excite our cells like a drug (I will discuss this further another time). 

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    Anger is really about disappointment - things didn't work out the way you wanted them to so you feel disempowered. Disempowerment is one of the worst feelings to have, so anger makes you feel a bit better by taking back some of your power - by blaming another person or an incident. There seems to be a strong link between anger and depression - it is said depression is anger turned inward. That could be in the form of a harsh "inner critic". This makes sense in that depression is a strong feeling of being disempowered - it isn't just sadness. This is one of the reasons why it is so important for people to seek professional help when they have depression or other mental or emotional condition - because there are ways to get better - talk therapy is part of it, and an integrative approach will help - good nutrition, bodywork (massage, acupuncture, etc.), mindfulness and exercise.

    Anger isn't really the enemy, it is part of our ego survival, it serves to help make us feel empowered again - if expressed appropriately. What we need is balance.

    It is important to note that you can get angry but not take it out on the people around you! Violence is anger gone wild - a lack of communication of the anger. Anger need never turn violent, if a person can learn to express their feelings in a healthy way. People can learn to express their anger without putting other people down, too. If you have ongoing anger, then I would suggest you see a counsellor and start exploring the real reason for your anger. Even if it has been going on for so long that it has become a part of your personality, you can still change. 

    If you have repressed anger then you may be experiencing a low mood and you may be taking too much responsibility - by repressing anger that we feel about another person's actions we are telling ourselves we are unworthy of better treatment. I would encourage you to acknowledge your anger and get it out. Delve deep into it, why are you angry? Speak out loud of all the things that have angered you or write them all done. Then get it out via physical expression - when you will not be interrupted. Punch a pillow, scream it out, whatever you need to do (not involving other beings!). Once expressed fully, it can move through you and be healed. You may also need the guidance of a counsellor to help you feel safe in expressing this uncomfortable emotion. 

    Essential oils can help us feel better after dealing with the negative emotion. You can use a combination of the calming and uplifting essential oils listed above, or if there is deep hurt under your anger choose the comforting essential oils listed under grief. 

    Transformation

     Photo by  Chloe Si  on  Unsplash

    Photo by Chloe Si on Unsplash

    It is easier to transform emotions, and therefore your biochemical make-up and energy, than you may think. What works best for me is to delve deeply into the emotion and explore the reason for it - the various thoughts and all the other feelings that are attached. For example, under anger there may be deep hurt. As each feeling comes up express it in the appropriate way - sadness requires allowing yourself to cry, anger requires physical activity - punch a punching bag or a pillow, and frustration may require voicing it. All of this is done on your own, not involving other people, unless you need the support.

    Once the emotion is expressed, it is time to transform it. This is where aromatherapy is especially helpful. Maybe you've felt deep hurt, so now you can rub some rose, jasmine or geranium essential oil (diluted) into your chest, slow your breathing, bring one hand to your heart, the other to your navel. Now transform the thoughts - reach for a better-feeling thought. Don't reach straight for the opposite thought and feeling, unless you are usually in state of happiness and used to transforming emotions, because it probably won't be in reach (believable for you). Rather, reach for something that feels a bit better first before transforming it to another higher thought and you can start to move your emotional state. The key is to be able to genuinely shift your emotions. So be general first - question your negative thoughts and beliefs, poke holes in them (by exploring all the ways they may not be true) and then reach for a better thing to believe about the situation. Affirmations only work if you feel and truly connect with them. You will know it is working when you start to feel better. 


    Scent, Emotions and Memory

    I've already discussed the limbic system in the brain in my last blog, but as a reminder it consists of structures involved with emotion, memory, learning, motivation (and addiction), hormones, sleep-wake cycle, appetite and arousal. The sense of smell reaches the limbic system quicker than any other sense. 

    Working with aromatherapy to affect mental and emotional states is an art and a science. It is about choosing appropriate essential oils to affect the state of an individual, while taking into account their personal preferences and associations with different aromas. 

    As smell is intrinsically linked with memory and emotions, you can use essential oils to help evoke emotions. The following exercises are practical examples of how you can use a scent to evoke a good feeling from memory, or utilise the link between memory and scent. 

    Exercise 1 - to move out of an unproductive or flat mood

    The first step is to train your brain in the times you are feeling great. So the next time you are in a happy mood, you could pick an essential oil, preferably an uplifting one such as a citrus oil - e.g. bergamot or sweet orange oil, and inhale it deeply, for several minutes and expand that feeling of happiness - really enjoy it - think of all the things you appreciate. Do that a few times, on different occasions so that you really build an association of that scent with that emotion. The idea is that the next time you are feeling a little flat you could inhale the essential oil again to help you get back to that happy place again. Use this for those little moments where you run out of energy and feel low, and need something to uplift you. Don't use it to avoid feeling sad when you actually need to face the sadness. 

    Exercise 2 - to help you ace an exam

    You can also use essential oils to help you remember information if you are studying. For this purpose, choose an essential oil that is stimulating for the mind - such as rosemary or basil. When you start your study session use the essential oil/s in your diffuser or oil burner and keep that aroma going for the entire study session, and use the same blend in all of your study sessions. Take the essential oil (or blend) with you to inhale during your exam to help you recall the information. 

    Study and Memorise Blend

    • Rosemary - 3 drops
    • Basil - 2 drops
    • Peppermint - 2 drops

    Exercise 3 - deepening spiritual practice

    Aromatherapy is great to use during yoga or meditation to help set the mood and if you use the same essential oil, or blend of oils each session you can reach a deep meditative or relaxed and blissful state rapidly.

    Sandalwood oil is great for meditation and anything sacred and so is frankincense oil. I also enjoy jasmine, roman chamomile, and ylang ylang essential oils for this purpose. For spiritual practice, it really comes down to your personal preference and intuition, what scent smells sacred to you? You may wish to create a special blend that you only use during sacred practice. 


    Aromatherapy baths - good for relaxation, rejuvenation and self-care

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    One of the best ways to recharge your energy and really nurture yourself is to have an aromatherapy bath. You can also use Epsom salts to help relax your muscles. An aromatherapy bath is like a ritual of self-love - not in an egotistical way, but a way of honouring yourself and your body. 

    When using essential oils in the bath choose ones that are safe to use in water - don't use any essential oils that oxidise quickly such as the citrus essential oils as they will irritate the skin. There are also essential oils that irritate the skin in general and as such shouldn't be used in the bath or applied on the skin (e.g. bay, cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, thyme - there are more so check the safety). Also never use peppermint oil in the bath - it burns if used in water! I also recommend using a dispersing agent of natural origin - I use "Disper" by Essential Therapeutics. This is an emulsifier for essential oils and helps to blend it with the bath water rather than the essential oils sitting on top of the water with the potential to irritate skin. However I have to admit, even as an aromatherapist I often skip this step. I'm just careful to choose oils that won't irritate my skin and careful with how much I use - I usually use between 5 to 10 drops. 

    Some of my favourite essential oils to use in the bath to balance my hormones, calm and rejuvenate me include: Roman chamomile, clary sage, geranium, lavender, palmarosa, patchouli, and ylang ylang.

    Hormone-Balancing Bath Blend

    This blend is relaxing and rejuvenating and it is great for balancing women's hormones (do not use if pregnant). This blend can prevent PMS or make you feel better if you are experiencing it. If you use this regularly, or some of the other oils I suggested, along with good nutrition and exercise, you may eliminate PMS altogether! 

    • Roman Chamomile: 3 drops
    • Clary Sage: 2 drops
    • Geranium: 2 drops
    • Ylang Ylang: 3 drops

    Aromatherapy and Massage

    In my September 2017 blog I discussed what the stress response is and what chronic stress is. One of the points in that blog was that the stress response temporarily suppresses our immune system and the unfortunate thing about our lifestyles today is many people experience stress on a daily basis. This is why it is essential to manage and reduce stress.  Massage therapy works to calm the nervous system, however I am referring to massage that is mostly relaxing. Massage that is too vigorous, disjointed and with pressure that is too deep and painful or with a massage therapist you don't trust, isn't going to be relaxing. Ever had a massage that made you feel worse, where your muscles were sore for longer than one or two days? That massage therapist worked too deep, and actually prevented your nervous system from calming down. However, I'm not necessarily blaming the therapist - sometimes it is the client who insists on more pressure or doesn't speak up when they experience pain. My massage style is mostly relaxing, with light, moderate or firm pressure adjusted for the individual, and I use deeper pressure where it is needed but I ensure that the session is still calming and enjoyable because that is the most important part. The relaxation response is what I am aiming for - so that stress, muscular tension and pain will dissipate.

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    When receiving a relaxing massage with consistent pace and flow, the body will start to relax and this will tell the brain that the body is relaxed and then the brain releases the "happy" hormones, such as endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin which will reduce anxiety and other negative moods and produce a feeling of wellbeing. These hormones will also tell the body that it is relaxed (in a feedback loop). 

    There is much evidence that your body is stimulated first to tell the brain what to feel. An interesting example that Robert Sapolsky talks about in his lecture on the Limbic System is how the drug benzodiazepine treats anxiety as well as tense muscles. Benzodiazepines work on the central nervous system acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors in the brain. It reduces the activity of nerve cells in the brain and relaxes muscles. Robert Sapolsky advises: “What’s part of anxiety about? It’s monitoring the level of tension in your body. It’s getting feedback from muscle tone. And it’s one of the ways that benzodiazepines work… So that’s why the same drug decreases anxiety and is a muscle relaxant.” I find that particularly interesting being that massage therapy works to relax muscles and is an affective treatment for relieving anxiety. If only all anxiety sufferers could receive massages regularly – maybe they could use it as an alternative to medication, without experiencing the side-effects that drugs cause. Another example he gives is that meditation reduces blood pressure. As the person focuses on something relaxing the brain’s processes lower blood pressure.

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    Aromatherapy massage has a relaxation focus and the essential oils assert different influences on our minds, emotions and bodies and will further enhance the massage experience. Essential oils will have different influences on the physical body such as being anti-inflammatory, antiviral, analgesic, etcetera, and as you have already learned they will affect both mind and emotions - they can sedate, calm, balance and uplift. Aromatherapy massage is very soothing and nurturing, and helps a person feel cared for and calm. It is an excellent treatment for stress, anxiety, grief and depression, as part of an integrative approach. 

    Essential Oils

    Living in Brisbane and interested in purchasing essential oils or booking an aromatherapy massage with me? Please contact me on 0433 523 678. If you would like a products price list sent to you, please email: info@essentialrestorativemassage.com.au. I sell other products too, including French clays, Epsom salts, organic detox teas, botanical face oils and roll-on perfumes. 

    Wishing you a wonderful 2018!

    Thanks for reading.

    - Belinda

     ESSENTIAL THERAPEUTICS ESSENTIAL OILS - AN AUSTRALIAN BRAND I USE AND SELL

    ESSENTIAL THERAPEUTICS ESSENTIAL OILS - AN AUSTRALIAN BRAND I USE AND SELL


    References

    Pert, C (1997). Molecules of Emotion - The Science Behind Mind-Body Medicine, New York: Scribner

    Battaglia, S (2003). The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy (second edition), Brisbane, Australia: The International Centre of Holistic Aromatherapy

    Price, S, Price L. (2007) Aromatherapy for Health Professionals (third edition), China: Elsevier

    Mojay, G (1997) Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit, China: Gaia Books Limited

    Worwood, V, (1990) The Fragrant Pharmacy: A complete guide to aromatherapy & essential oils London: Macmillan London Ltd

    Worwood, V, (1995) The Fragrant Mind: Aromatherapy for Personality, Mind, Mood and Emotion London: Bantam Books London

    Sellar, W (2005) The Directory of Essential oils, London, UK: Random House. 

    Useful Resources

    If you wish to know more about the limbic system, see this lecture by Robert Sapolsky. He doesn't discuss aromatherapy, however this information is interesting and certainly has implications for aromatherapy (at least from my perspective). 


    Information provided by Essential Restorative Massage is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have a health condition or symptoms of one, please consult with your doctor before using complimentary remedies and therapies.

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